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Daniel Bennett
Daniel Bennett

Blood Money

Blood money is, colloquially, the reward for bringing a criminal to justice. A common meaning in other contexts is the money-penalty paid by a murderer to the kinsfolk of the victim. These fines completely protect the offender (or the kinsfolk thereof) from the vengeance of the injured family. The system was common among Germanic peoples as part of the Ancient Germanic law before the introduction of Christianity (weregild), and a scale of payments, graduated according to the heinousness of the crime, was fixed by laws, which further settled who could exact the blood-money, and who were entitled to share it. Homicide was not the only crime thus expiable: blood-money could be exacted for most crimes of violence. Some acts, such as killing someone in a church or while asleep, or within the precincts of the royal palace, and corporal infamy[2] (rape) were "bot-less"; the death penalty was inflicted instead. Such a criminal was outlawed, and could be killed on sight or thrown into a bog in case of rape according to Tacitus.[3]

Blood Money

In Japanese culture it is common to give blood money, or mimaikin, to a victim's family. Such was the case with Lucie Blackman's father, who accepted 450,000 as blood money for the murder of his daughter.[5]

Under the Korean legal system, it is common for those accused of both minor (such as defamation) and serious crimes to offer blood money (hapuigeum, 합의금) to the victim, and if accepted then the perpetrator is usually excused from further punishment. Despite being common practice, its use in high-profile cases does sometimes result in protests.[6]

In the Christian Bible, the term is used to refer to the thirty pieces of silver Judas Iscariot received in exchange for revealing the identity of Jesus Christ to the forces sent by the Pharisees and/or the Sanhedrin. After the crucifixion of Christ, Judas returned the payment to the chief priests, who "took the silver pieces and said, 'It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood.'"[7]

"Shanghaiing" was the practice of the forced conscription of sailors. Boarding masters, whose job it was to find crews for ships, were paid "by the body," and thus had a strong incentive to place as many seamen on ships as possible.[8][9] This pay was called blood money.[10]

Today on the show, we look at how the United States got into the blood money business, and if the rest of the world should be following in its footsteps. Or if, instead, it's the U.S. that should change its ways.

It is hard to imagine a Silicon Valley story more riveting than the tale of Theranos, the US$9-billion company founded by a 19-year-old wunderkind who promised to revolutionize medical testing and instead was charged with fraud last year. There is fear and betrayal, money and deception, and perhaps a few lessons about the extension of the technology hype cycle to medicine.

Each treatment so far is a gripping account of how Holmes dropped out of Stanford University in California, and persuaded the glitterati of Silicon Valley and Washington DC to pour money into her vision: technology that could perform hundreds of tests on drops of blood taken from a finger prick. Holmes pledged that the method would liberate people from the tyranny of venous blood draws, which she likened to medieval torture (The Inventor plays on that imagery with unsettling slow-motion close-ups of needles piercing veins).

Ransom paid by a murderer to the avenging kinsmen of a murdered man, in satisfaction for the crime. Among the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic peoples blood-money or "wergeld" was commonly paid, and a regular scale of prices fixing the value of lives was established by law (Kemble, "The Anglo-Saxons in England," ii. 276 et seq.). Blood-money was unknown in Roman law. All crimes except murder could be satisfied by payment of a fine; but for murder the death penalty was in variably inflicted (see "The Law of the Twelve Tables," Table VIII.).

The Jewish law went further than the Roman law in this respect. The code of the Twelve Tables simply states that for murder the death penalty shall be inflicted, and for lesser crimes the money compensation may be received in satisfaction, thus inferentially prohibiting the taking of blood-money for murder. The Biblical law (Num. xxxv. 31, 32), however, expressly prohibits it. It forbids (1) the taking of blood-money for the life of a murderer, allowing him to escape; and (2) the taking of it for a murderer who has fled to a city of refuge, allowing him to return to his home. The crime of taking human life was the most heinous known to the Jewish law (ib. xxxv. 34).

According to another Biblical code (Ex. xxi. 28-32), the owner of a goring ox who, knowing the dangerous nature of the animal, still did not keep it in subjection, was put to death if the ox killed a human being. But as the death in this case was not directly caused by the owner of the ox, a concession was made in his favor, and he was permitted to ransom his life. The Talmud modifies the severity of the law through the following process of reasoning: If the owner of the ox committed the murder, he was forced to die according to the law (Num.xxxv. 31); but if his ox killed a person, the ox was slain, and the owner paid blood-money. If the ox were not slain, then the owner was put to death; hence R. Ḥizkiyah said, "The law in Num. xxxv. 31 requires only the actual murderer to be killed; and you can not put a man to death because of a death caused by his ox" (Sanh. 15b).

The murderer who had come to the city of refuge, if guilty of wilful murder, was given into the hands of the avenger to be executed; but if guilty of accidental homicide, remained in the city of refuge until the death of the high priest (Num. xxxv. 25). It appears, therefore, that even one guilty of accidental homicide could not expiate the offense by the payment of blood-money, but must serve his full term in the city of refuge (Ket. 37b). The strict application of this law led the rabbinical authorities to the conclusion that the death penalty was an absolute satisfaction for the crime and its consequences, and that therefore the relatives of the murdered person had no claim in damages against the murderer. The law in Ex. xxi. 22 was thus explained: "If there is no danger to life from the injury, the murerer is punished by fine; but if death results, he is not punished by fine, because he is subjected to the death penalty" (Mishnah Ket. iii. 2).

Maimonides states the matter as follows: "The court must take care that no blood-money be taken from the murderer even if he would give all the money in the world, and even if the avenger would be willing to release him; because the life of the murdered man is not the property of the avenger, but the property of God, and God has said, 'Ye shall take no blood-money for the life of a murderer' (Num. xxxv. 31); and 'There is no sin so great as that of murder, for blood defileth the land' (Num. xxxv. 33)"; (Maimonides, "Yad," Roẓeaḥ, i. 4; see articles Damages, Homicide, Ransom.).

The player has 4 missions to take on, in each case trying to kill baddies for the money they have, which can be spent in the shop rooms to upgrade their craft. Energy is depleted by contact with enemies and the walls, although there are some baddies who simply hover on your ship and steal, rather than physically doing damage.

Wounded from the fight, Angel returns to the shelter, and Anne tells him that she's worked out he's a vampire but that doesn't faze her. She states that she's seen terrible things happening to kids on the streets of Los Angeles, and she is willing to ignore just about anything if it means aid to the shelter. Angel points out that, out of all the money that will be raised at the charity ball, she'll likely only see around 5% of it, but Anne tells him even that would be enough to keep the shelter running for a couple of years.

Angel urges her to think about where the other 95% is going, telling her that the money she'll make from the party will have blood on it, even if she can't see it. He asks her to get him inside the fundraiser, telling her he has a video tape with footage that will expose Wolfram & Hart, assuring her its the right thing to do. Anne reminds him that all she cares about is helping the kids at the shelter, and she refuses.

At the ball, a video of Holland talking about the shelter entertains those at the fundraiser. Lilah introduces Anne to one of her superiors, Nathan Reed, while Lindsey reviews the security plans for the ball. While actors pretending to be bandits collect money and jewelry from the rich attendees, Angel reveals his presence, which leads to a fight between the vampire and Boone on the balcony, and they eventually fall to the main floor. Lindsey searches for the incriminating tape, but it's revealed that Angel is not in possession of the tape and Boone is actually working with him. Anne gets the tape to the player, and Lindsey and Lilah scramble across the floor to stop her, an act which is captured on film, but they fail and the tape plays.

The tape contains only clips of Cordelia and Wesley acting goofy for the camera. Angel never had anything to incriminate the lawyers in the first place; he was just trying to embarrass them, a plan that has worked thanks to their frenzied attempt to stop him. They notice that Boone has taken off with the donations. Anne confronts Angel accuses him of having no intention of exposing Wolfram & Hart's scheme, and he confirms this saying they would have only covered it up, so he's willing to settle for making the firm look bad. Anne reminds him that she's lost all the charity money, but Angel tells her that he doesn't care, reminding her that the money was tainted, and he leaves.

Lindsey and Lilah are hauled in front of Nathan for losing the money, embarrassing the firm, and hiring an assassin to kill Angel who was actually in league with him. He warns them to start accumulating victories fast, and Lindsey demands to know why they can't be allowed to just kill Angel since he's so much trouble for them. Nathan informs him that, according to the various prophecies, Angel will play a key role in the apocalypse. What isn't known, however, is whose side he will be fighting on. Wolfram & Hart are keen for Angel to have turned evil by that point, and his obsession with Lindsey and Lilah is hoped to help contribute to that. Nathan finishes by warning the two that Angel is invaluable while they are replaceable. 041b061a72


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